Engel, N., (2015) Tuberculosis control in India: A case of innovation and control. Delhi: Orient BlackSwan Ltd.

Engel, N., Van  Hoyweghen, I., & Krumeich, A. (Eds.). (2014). Making global health care innovation work: Standardization and localization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.


Journal publications

Engel, N., Ochodo, E. A., Karanja, P. W., Schmidt, B. M., Janssen, R., Steingart, K. R., & Oliver, S. (2022). Rapid molecular tests for tuberculosis and tuberculosis drug resistance: a qualitative evidence synthesis of recipient and provider views. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(4). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD014877.pub2

Putturaj, M., Krumeich, A., Nuggehalli Srinivas, P., Engel, N., Criel, B., & Van Belle, S. (2022). Crying baby gets the milk? The governmentality of grievance redressal for patient rights violations in Karnataka, India. BMJ Global Health, 7(5), e008626. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2022-008626

Engel, N., Ochodo, E. A., Karanja, P. W., Schmidt, B. M., Janssen, R., Steingart, K. R., & Oliver, S. (2021). Rapid molecular tests for tuberculosis and tuberculosis drug resistance: provider and recipient views (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9), Art. No.: CD014877. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD014877

Mwaura, M., & Engel, N. (2021). Constructing confidence: User perspectives on AlereLAM testing for tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis, 112, 237-242. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.09.018

Engel, N., Ghergu, C., Matin, M. A., Kibria, M. G., Thriemer, K., Price, R. N., . . . Alam, M. S. (2021). Implementing radical cure diagnostics for malaria: user perspectives on G6PD testing in Bangladesh. Malaria Journal, 20(1), 217. doi:10.1186/s12936-021-03743-w

Janssen, R., Krumeich, A., Krumeich, A., Esmail, A., Thomas, R., Dheda, K., . . . Engel, N. (2021). Moments of Uncertainty: Exploring How an App-Based Oral HIV Self-Testing Strategy Fits in Communities ‘Living Under’ HIV Risk. Medicine Anthropology Theory, 8(2), 1-24. doi:10.17157/mat.8.2.5134

Janssen, R., Engel, N., Pant Pai, N., Esmail, A., Dheda, K., Thomas, R., & Krumeich, A. (2021) ‘You’re only there on the phone’? A qualitative exploration of community, affect and agential capacity in HIV self-testing using a smartphone app. Sociology of Health & Illness, 43(3), 591-606. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.13242

Putturaj, M., Van Belle, S., Engel, N., Criel, B., Krumeich, A., Nagendrappa, P. B., & Srinivas, P. N. (2021). Multilevel governance framework on grievance redressal for patient rights violations in India. Health Policy and Planning. doi:10.1093/heapol/czab066

Pai, N., Esmail, A., Saha Chaudhuri, P., Oelofse, S., Pretorius, M., Marathe, G., . . .Engel, N., Zwerling, A., Dheda, K. (2021). Impact of a personalised, digital, HIV self-testing app-based program on linkages and new infections in the township populations of South Africa. BMJ Global Health, 6(9), e006032. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006032

McGuire, M., de Waal, A., Karellis, A., Janssen, R., Engel, N., Sampath, R., . . . Pai, N. P. (2021). HIV self-testing with digital supports as the new paradigm: A systematic review of global evidence (2010-2021). EClinicalMedicine, 39, 101059. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101059

van de Berg, S. E. J., Pelzer, P. T., van der Land, A. J., Abdrakhmanova, E., Ozi, A. M., Arias, M., . . . Engel, N., Mulder, C., van den Hof, S. (2021). Acceptability, feasibility, and likelihood of stakeholders implementing the novel BPaL regimen to treat extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1404. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-11427-y

Engel, N., & Wolffs, P. F. G. (2020). Aligning diagnostics to the point-of-care: lessons for innovators, evaluators and decision-makers from tuberculosis and HIV. BMJ Global Health, 5(11), e003457. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003457

Engel, N. (2020). Aligning in the dark: Variable and shifting (user-) settings in developing point-of-care diagnostics for tuberculosis and HIV. Social Studies of Science, 50(1), 50–75. doi:10.1177/0306312719900545

Engel, N. & A. Krumeich (2020). Valuing Simplicity: Developing a Good Point of Care Diagnostic. Frontiers in Sociology, 5(37). doi: 10.3389/fsoc.2020.00037

Mwaura, M., Kao, K., Wambugu, J., Trollip, A., Sikhondze, W., Omesa, E., . . . Engel, N. (2020). Situating trade-offs: Stakeholder perspectives on overtreatment versus missed diagnosis in transition to Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra in Kenya and Swaziland. PLoS ONE, 15(2), e0228669. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0228669

Lall, D., Engel, N., Srinivasan, P. N., Devadasan, N., Horstman, K., & Criel, B. (2020). Improving primary care for diabetes and hypertension: findings from implementation research in rural South India. BMJ Open, 10(12), e040271. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040271

Lall, D., Engel, N., Devadasan, N., Horstman, K., & Criel, B. (2020). Team-based primary health care for non-communicable diseases: complexities in South India. Health Policy and Planning, 35(Supplement_2), ii22-ii34. doi:10.1093/heapol/czaa121

Putturaj, M., Van Belle, S., Criel, B., Engel, N., Krumeich, A., B Nagendrappa, P., & Prashanth, N. (2020). Towards a multilevel governance framework on the implementation of patient rights in health facilities: a protocol for a systematic scoping review. BMJ Open, 10(10), e038927. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038927

McDowell, A., Engel, N., & Daftary, A. (2019). In the eye of the multiple beholders: Qualitative research perspectives on studying and encouraging quality of TB care in India. Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, 16, 100111. doi: 10.1016/j.jctube.2019.100111

Janssen, R., Engel, N., Esmail, A., Oelofse, S., Krumeich, A., Dheda, K., & Pai, N. P. (2019). Alone But Supported: A Qualitative Study of an HIV Self-testing App in an Observational Cohort Study in South Africa. AIDS and Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10461-019-02516-6

Lall, D., Engel, N., Devadasan, N., Horstman, K., & Criel, B. (2019). Challenges in primary care for diabetes and hypertension: an observational study of the Kolar district in rural India. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 44. doi:10.1186/s12913-019-3876-9

Lall, D., Engel, N., Devadasan, D, Horstman, K. & B. Criel (2018). Models of care for chronic conditions in low/middle-income countries: a ‘best fit’ framework synthesis. BMJ Global Health 3(6): e001077.

Pai, NP; Smallwood, M; Gulati, D; Lapczak, N; Musten, A; Gaydos, C; Johnston, C; Steben, M; Wong, T; Engel, N; Kim, J. (2018). What do Key Stakeholders Think About HIV Self-Testing in Canada? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey. Aids and Behavior, 22(2), 606-615. Doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1764-z.

Engel, N. (2018). Towards patient-centred care: analysing TB treatment literacy documents and adherence discourses. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 22(3), 238-238. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.18.0068 (editorial)

Sariola, S., Engel, N., Kingori, P., & Montgomery, C. M. (2017). Guest editorial to special issue STS and Global Health: Coffee Time at the Conference : The Global Health Complex in Action to Tackle Antimicrobial Resistance. Science & Technology Studies, 30(4), 2-7. doi: 10.23987/sts.66430

Sariola, S. Montgomery, C. M., Kingori, P., Sariola, S., & Engel, N. (2017). Guest editorial to special issue: Critique and Complicity: STS and Global Health. Science & Technology Studies, 30(3), 2-12. doi: 10.23987/sts.65369

Engel, N., Yellapa, V., Pant Pai, N., & Pai, M. (2017). Diagnosing at Point of Care in South India: Coordination work and frictions. Science & Technology Studies, 30(3), 54-72. doi: 10.23987/sts.63085

Pant Pai, N., Chiavegatti, T., Vijh, R., Karatzas, N., Daher, J., Smallwood, M., Wong, T. & Engel, N. (2017). Measures and Metrics for Feasibility of Proof-of-Concept Studies With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rapid Point-of-Care Technologies: The Evidence and the Framework. Point of Care, 16(4), 141-150. doi:10.1097/poc.0000000000000147

Engel, N., Davids, M., Blankvoort, N., Dheda, K., Pant Pai, N., & Pai, M. (2017). Making HIV testing work at the point of care in South Africa: a qualitative study of diagnostic practices. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 408. doi:10.1186/s12913-017-2353-6

Yellapa, V., Devadasan, N., Krumeich, A., Pant Pai, N., Vadnais, C., Pai, M., & Engel, N. (2017). How patients navigate the diagnostic ecosystem in a fragmented health system: a qualitative study from India. Global Health Action, 10(1), 1350452. doi:10.1080/16549716.2017.1350452

Macintyre, K,  M. I. Bakker, S. Bergson, R. Bhavaraju, V. Bond, J. Chikovore, C. Colvin, G. M. Craig, A. L. Cremers, A. Daftary, N. Engel, N. Ferris France, E. Jaramillo, M. Kimerling, A. Kipp, S. Krishnaratne, C. Mergenthaler, M. Ngicho, L. Redwood, E. J. J. Rood, N. Sommerland, A. Stangl, A. van Rie, W. van Brakel, E. Wouters, A. Zwerling, Mitchell E. M. H. (2017). Defining the research agenda to measure and reduce tuberculosis stigmas. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 21(11), S87-S96. doi:10.5588/ijtld.17.0151

Craig, G. M., Daftary, A., Engel, N., O’Driscoll, S., & Ioannaki, A. (2017). Tuberculosis stigma as a social determinant of health: a systematic mapping review of research in low incidence countries. Int J Infect Dis(56), 90-100. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.10.011

Pai, N. P., Smallwood, M., Gulati, D., Lapczak, N., Musten, A., Gaydos, C., Johnsont, C., Steben, M., Wong, T., Engel, N., & J. Kim (2017). What do Key Stakeholders Think About HIV Self-Testing in Canada? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey. AIDS and Behavior, 1-10.

Zvonareva, O., Engel, N., Kutishenko, N., & Horstman, K. (2017). (Re)configuring research value: international commercial clinical trials in the Russian Federation. BioSocieties, 12(3), 392-414. doi:10.1057/biosoc.2016.11

Engel, N., Wachter, K., Pai, M., Gallarda, J., Boehme, C., Celentano, I., & R. Weintraub (2016). Addressing the challenges of diagnostics demand and supply: insights from an online global health discussion platform. BMJ Global Health, 1(4).

Engel, N., Ganesh, G., Patil, M., Yellappa, V., Vadnais, C., Pant Pai, N., M. Pai (2015). Point-of-care testing in India: missed opportunities to realize the true potential of point-of-care testing programs. BMC Health Services Research 15(1): 550.

Engel, N., Ganesh, G., Patil, M., Yellappa, V., Pant Pai, N., Vadnais, C., et al. (2015). Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases. PLoS ONE, 10(8), e0135112.

Engel, N., Davids, M., Blankvoort, N., Pai, N. P., Dheda, K., & Pai, M. (2015). Compounding diagnostic delays: a qualitative study of point-of-care testing in South Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 20(4), 493-500.

Davids, M., et al. Dheda, K., Pant Pai, N., Cogill, D., Pai, M., Engel, N. (2015). “A Survey on Use of Rapid Tests and Tuberculosis Diagnostic Practices by Primary Health Care Providers in South Africa: Implications for the Development of New Point-of-Care Tests.” PLoS ONE 10(10): e0141453.

Zvonareva, O., Engel, N., Martsevich, S., de Wert, G., & Horstman, K. (2015). International clinical trials, cardiovascular disease and treatment options in the Russian Federation: Research and treatment in practice. Social Science & Medicine, 128(0), 255-262.

Engel, N., & Pant Pai, N. (2015). Qualitative research on point-of-care testing strategies and programs for HIV. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, 15(1), 71-75. doi: 10.1586/14737159.2015.960518.

Pai, N. P., Wilkinson, S., Deli-Houssein, R., Vijh, R., Vadnais, C., Behlim, T., Steben, M., Engel, N., Wong, T. (2015). “Barriers to Implementation of Rapid and Point-of-Care Tests for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Findings From a Systematic Review (1996-2014).” Point Care 14(3): 81-87.

Engel, N. & Lente, H. van (2014). Organizational Innovation and Control Practices: The Case of Public-Private Mix in Tuberculosis Control in India. Sociology of Health & Illness, 36 (6), 917-931. doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.12125

Engel, N. & Zeiss, R. (2014). Situating Standards in Practices: Multi drug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment in India. Science as Culture, 23 (2), 201-225. doi: 10.1080/09505431.2013.837875

Engel, N. & M. Pai (2013). Editorial: Tuberculosis diagnostics: why we need more qualitative research, Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 3, 119-121.

Zvonareva, O., Engel, N., Ross, E., Berghmans, R., Dhai, A., & Krumeich, A. (2013). Engaging Diverse Social and Cultural Worlds: Perspectives on Benefits in International Clinical Research From South African Communities. Developing World Bioethics, doi: 10.1111/dewb.12030.

Pant Pai, N., Behlim, T., Abrahams, L.,Vadnais, C, Shivkumar, S. Pillay, S., Binder, A., Deli-, Houssein, R., Engel, N., Joseph, L., Dheda, K. (2013). “Will an Unsupervised Self-Testing Strategy for HIV Work in Health Care Workers of South Africa? A Cross Sectional Pilot Feasibility Study.” PLoS ONE 8(11): e79772.

Pant Pai, N., Vadnais, C., Denkinger, C., Engel, N., Pai , M. (2012). Point-of-Care Testing for Infectious Diseases: Diversity, Complexity, and Barriers in Low- And Middle-Income Countries, PLOS Medicine 9(9), e1001306.

Engel, N.C. (2012). The making of a public health problem: multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in India, Health Policy and Planning, doi: 10.1093/heapol/czs069.

Engel, N.( 2012). New diagnostics for multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis in India: Innovating control and controlling innovation. BioSocieties, 7, 50-71.

Engel, N., Kenneth, J., & Pai, M. (2012). TB diagnostics in India: creating an ecosystem for innovation. Expert Review Molecular Diagnostics, 12(1), 21-24.

Engel, N. (2011). Local adaptation versus standardization? Treatment delivery for multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis in India, Medische Antropologie, 23 (1) pp.45-61 (now MAT Medicine Anthropology Theory).


Reports for policy makers and guidelines

Engel, N. , Ochodo, E.A., Karanja, P.W., Schmidt, B.M., Janssen, R. Steingart, K.R. & S. Oliver (2021) Web Annex 4. Evidence synthesis and analysis. Section 4.10: User perspectives on NAATs to detect TB and resistance to anti-TB agents: results from qualitative evidence synthesis (systematic review) In: WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis. Module 3: diagnosis – rapid diagnostics for tuberculosis detection, 2021 update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. 

Janssen, R., Mwaura, M. & N. Engel (2021) Web Annex 4. Evidence synthesis and analysis. Section 4.11: User perspectives on nucleic acid amplification tests for tuberculosis and tuberculosis drug resistance (interview study) In: WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis. Module 3: diagnosis – rapid diagnostics for tuberculosis detection, 2021 update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. 

Engel, N., & Mwaura, M. (2020). Report on user perspectives on Xpert testing: results from qualitative research (section 4.7); In: Web Annex 4. Evidence synthesis and analysis. In: WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis. Module 3: diagnosis – rapid diagnostics for tuberculosis detection. (Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO). Geneva: World Health Organization.

Engel, N., & Mwaura, M. (2019). Web Annex D. User perspectives on LF-LAM for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: results from qualitative research. In: Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis in people living with HIV: policy update (2019). Geneva: World Health Organization.


Book chapters  

Engel, N. (2020). Standardization and localization in tuberculosis control. In J. P. Gaudilliere, C. Beaudevin, C. Gradmann, A. Lovell, & L. Pordié (Eds.), Global health and the new world order: Historical and anthropological approaches to a changing regime of governance (pp. 29-51). Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Engel, N., Meershoek, A., & Krumeich, A. (2020). Responsive and responsible science, technology and innovation for global health. In A. A. Adenle, M. R. Chertow, E. H. M. Moors, & D. J. Pannell (Eds.), Science, technology and innovation for sustainable development goals: Insights from agriculture, health, environment, and energy (pp. 310-324). New York: Oxford University Press.

Engel, N. (2020) Innovating tuberculosis diagnostics for the point of care. In: Ian Harper & Helen MacDonald (eds.), Anthropological and ethnographic approaches to understanding tuberculosis and its control, (pp. 166-184).  Routledge.

Engel, N., Meershoek, A., & Craig, G. (2018). Measuring Discursive and Rhetorical Stigma. In E. M. Mitchell & S. Van den Hof (Eds.), TB Stigma Measurement Guidance (pp. 228-244): Challenge TB project

Engel, N., Yellappa, V., Davids, M., Dheda, K., Pai, N. P., & Pai, M. (2018). Barriers to Point of Care Testing in India and South Africa. In S. Hostettler, S. Najih Besson, & J.-C. Bolay (Eds.), Technologies for Development: From Innovation to Social Impact (pp. 75-85). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Engel, N. (2017). Innovation for tuberculosis control in India. In H. Van Lente, T. Swierstra, S. Wyatt, & R. Zeiss (Eds.), Wegwijs in STS – Knowing your way in STS (pp. 247-249). Maastricht: Maastricht University Science, Technology and Society Studies (MUSTS).

Engel, N. & M. Pai. (2014). Tuberculosis, Drug-Resistant. In: B.S. Steel (ed.), Science and Politics: An A to Z Guide to Issues and Controversies. Sage/CQ Press. pp: 509-513.

Engel, N. (2014). Multi-drug-resistant Tuberculosis. In: David McQueen (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press,

Van Alphen, I. A. S., Engel, N., & Vaz, M. (2014). Local perspectives on universal bioethics: A qualitative study on informed consent in South India. In N. Engel, I. Van  Hoyweghen & A. Krumeich (Eds.), Making global health care innovation work: Standardization and localization (pp. 41-61). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Zvonareva, O., & Engel, N. (2014). Payments in clinical research: Views and experiences of participants in South Africa. In N. Engel, I. Van  Hoyweghen & A. Krumeich (Eds.), Making global health care innovation work: Standardization and localization (pp. 63-79). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Nguyen Thi Mai, P., & Engel, N. (2014). Community health workers in a community-based tuberculosis program: Linking different social worlds. In N. Engel, I. Van  Hoyweghen & A. Krumeich (Eds.), Making global health care innovation work: Standardization and localization (pp. 81-96). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Engel, Nora, 2008, University Patenting and its Effects: An Assessment for Developing Countries, in: C. Sri Krishna (ed.), Technology Transfer: Intellectual Property Rights, Amicus Books, The Icfai University Press, Hyderabad, India, pp. 127-142


Other publications

Engel, N. (2021). Diversifying the evidence base used to make global guideline decisions. SSHIFTB newsletter, 2021

KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation (2015). Tuberculosis research in the Netherlands: Innovation to accelerate global tuberculosis elimination. Mentioning as one of the TB research groups in white paper on tuberculosis research in the Netherlands, see p35

Engel, N. & W. Bijker (2012). Innovating Tuberculosis Control in India, Economic & Political Weekly, 47(4): 111-118.

Engel, N., J Kenneth & M Pai, 2011, TB diagnostics in India: from importation and imitation to innovation, Express Pharma,

Engel, N. & M. Pai, (2011). Challenges for Innovation in TB Diagnostics. Lessons from a recent conference in Bangalore, India. A guest blog for the Center for Global Health R&D Policy Assessment of the Results for Development Institute,